Wind farms are getting more and more popular, not only in Australia, but everywhere in the world. Danterr have been involved with a few wind farm projects such as the Musselroe Bay Wind Farm in Tasmania and supporting the Hornsdale Wind Farm in South Australia, as well as many others.
But you may be wondering, how does a wind farm come into development?
Here are 10 steps in which the construction of a wind farm begins:
- Carry out cartography, listing the wind fields, at the regional level, by analysing the technical data of any order such as the capacities of connection to the electric network and the various regulatory, environmental, landscape, and heritage constraints.
- Once potential land is identified, the developer contacts the mayor and local elected officials to present the wind project.
- If the project has attracted the interest of local elected officials, the wind developer can develop lease promises with farmers and landowners who have agreed to rent part of their plots for the installation of one or more wind turbines.
- The wind developer has the obligation to carry out an impact study of the park project. For this, they conduct several studies to evaluate the potential impacts of the project on the environment, residents, biodiversity, landscape, and patrimony.
- The construction of a wind farm requires several prefectural and ministerial authorisations. The wind developer must therefore submit specific requests to the prefecture of the department in which the wind farm project is located. In parallel with the administrative procedures, the wind developer sends the network manager a connection request.
- As part of the processing of applications for authorization, several consultations are organized as part of a public inquiry lasting between one and two months. It is organised under the aegis of a commissioner-investigator, a consultation of the departmental commission of nature, landscapes and sites (where environmental associations, heritage, landscape, etc.) sit, a consultation of the environmental authority.
- These consultations give rise to the delivery of advisory opinions, which will be sent to the prefect.
- Advisory decisions are then either accepted or refused.
- Once the authorisations obtained or the appeals have been finally completed, the wind developer sets up its financing plan in conjunction with various partners (banks, private investors, etc.).
- The last step is the connection of the wind turbines to the electricity grid and the commissioning of the fleet, which marks the injection of the first electrons on the grid. Controls by certified inspection bodies and tests are performed prior to commissioning to ensure compliance of the installation.
So how does Danterr get involved?
Danterr provide concrete bar spacers for the wind tower bases as well as pagel grout for its high compressive strength and easy workability. Danterr ensures that these wind farm projects receive the highest level of expertise and advice on products that have been suggested to achieve the required results.
For more information, please visit our website http://www.danterr.com. Alternatively, feel free to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org or 1800 262 383.
Concrete is one of the most long lasting, economical building materials ever devised by man. When placed properly and in the right application it will last a very long time. However, nothing good lasts forever and concrete is no exception. Some of those cracks appear within hours of pouring, others take many years to develop.
Most of the concrete cracks are related to shrinkage, heat, wrong joint placements, over stress and loading conditions and movements caused by external factors. Cracking cannot be prevented but it can be significantly reduced or controlled when the causes are taken into account and preventative steps are taken.
In most cases where cracks appear in concrete the crack can be identified and the cause of cracking established. All cracks can be grouped into two broad categories:
– Cracks occurring before and during hardening.
– Cracks occurring after hardening of concrete.
Repairing wide concrete cracks sometimes requires precision and skillfulness. The techniques used to repair concrete will depend on the location of the crack and how big the crack is. Concrete cracks repairs must be done carefully to prevent additional consequences and further deterioration. The recommended technique for patching cracks will also depend on the surface being worked out and whether the crack will be visible or on a walkable surface.
Some of these repairs are completed by using epoxy injections applied directly to the crack. Concrete cracks are repaired using different techniques and methods, such as epoxy injection depending on how wide, long and/or deep the crack is. The recommended process of injecting epoxy into cracks might vary from one place to another.
When cracks go through a concrete surface, and there is visibility from both ends of the concrete element, the epoxy can be injected from both ends. Sometimes the application might require making the epoxy more flowable or using another method to inject the epoxy into the concrete. The builder might also want to inject the epoxy more closely than usual so it gets into the deepest part of the concrete crack. Before deciding whether or not to use the epoxy repair, you will need to confirm that the cause of the crack is solved and no further movement is permissible. When the concrete is still subject to additional movement, then the epoxy injection process is not recommended.
Although concrete can sometimes crack, concrete is one of the most durable and long lasting products you can use, also, at Danterr, our focus is on quality, in all we do.
Wind power in Australia is a rapidly growing mode of renewable energy, accounting for 30.8 percent of Australia’s clean energy and supplied 5.3 percent of the country’s overall electricity in 2016. As wind energy is the fastest growing source for electricity generation, more wind farms are proposed to being built. So far, there are a total of 76 wind farms in Australia with an additional 16 projects either under construction, constructed or will start construction in 2017.
In Australia, wind power is primarily used for electricity generation and has also been used to pump bore water in rural areas. It is currently the cheapest source of large-scale renewable energy that involves generating electricity from the naturally occurring power of the wind. Wind turbines capture wind energy within the area swept by their blades. They produce a power output proportional to the air density and the wind speed cubed. The spinning blades drive an electrical generator that provides electricity for export to the grid.
So why wind power?
- Eco-friendly – wind power is a clean source of energy that doesn’t cause pollution. Unlike using coal or oil, wind power doesn’t pollute the air or require any destructive chemicals. This helps to shift away from fossil fuels and better improve the environment.
- Cost efficient – Wind is natural and does not cost a cent. Therefore, operational costs are close to zero once they start running. It is also a cheap form of renewable energy.
- Renewable and sustainable source – wind is a form of solar energy that is caused by the heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the rotation of the Earth, and the Earth’s surface irregularities. A long as the sun still shines and the wind blows, wind power will never run out.
- Modern wind turbines – wind turbines are more slick and attractive, unlike the old rustic windmills. Technological advances mean that turbines are now larger and more efficient in that they capture more energy per turbine, and fewer turbines will be needed to capture the same energy.
- Potential – the potential of wind power is enormous. A large wind turbine can power up to 600 homes. The global potential of wind energy is more than 400 TW (terawatts) which is 20 times more than what the entire human population needs. This is because harnessing wind energy can be done practically anywhere in the world if there is wind.
Wind power is a leap into a cleaner and brighter future. Danterr believes in this change and have aided many wind farm projects around Australia. Danterr has helped assist the following projects:
- The Musselroe Bay Wind Farm in Tasmania completed by Hazel Bros
- The Macarthur Wind Farm in Victoria completed by Leighton Contractors
- The Snow Town Wind Farm Phase 2 completed by Catcon
- The Boco Rock Wind Farm in NSW completed by SMB Civil
- The Hornsdale Wind Farm project Phases 1-3 completed by Catcon
- The Coonooer Bridge Wind Farm in Victoria completed by Catcon
- The Ararat Wind Farm in Victoria completed by SMB Civil
Danterr ensured that every project received the highest level of expertise and advice from their friendly sales team to achieve the required results and exceed all expectations.
For more information about the involvement of wind farms and wind power, visit our website www.danterr.com or contact us on 1800 262 383.
What is concrete? concrete is an artificial material made of pebbles, gravel and sand, merged together by means of a generally hydraulic binder.
Is Concrete Recycling possible?
Yes, reusing recycled concrete to make concrete again is possible. Concrete manufacturing requires cement, water, sand and gravel. These last two constituents can come from concrete waste and replace natural materials. Nevertheless, recycled concrete does not have quite the same properties as conventional concrete. There is a lowering of elasticity (less elastic modulus), and a greater shrinkage (increased withdrawals, before and after setting). But this does not provide an increase in the risk of cracking.
From a technical point of view, the experimental sites have made it possible to adapt the formulas, to prove the ease of drawing air into the concrete, to demonstrate that the manufacturing, the transport and the implementation did not generate any problems. They also allowed raising questions of logistics.
To use recycled concrete, it is necessary to be able to store the materials on the spot, because the volumes of aggregates available are more random since they depend on the sites of demolition. To counter this difficulty, the project partners are considering the idea of mixing recycled materials / natural materials directly into quarries. The idea is to provide a more fluid supply to construction sites while proposing different rates of incorporation of recycled materials depending on the types of concrete requested.
How is recycled concrete produced, and what are the obstacles to its development?
The first step is to put selective deconstruction techniques in place to sort concrete waste among other materials. The concrete blocks resulting from the demolition are then crushed, before going to the iron removal and the screening. Complementary steps, such as detection and separation of unwanted particles, can be implemented to purify the deconstructed materials.
The use of recycled aggregates for filling road platforms is already widespread: 80% of demolition concrete is used in the road. But this remains very limited in the building. To go further, we must work to recycle concrete in concrete. The main issue is to show that more recycled concrete can be used without modifying its implementation compared to traditional concrete.
Today, all mature industries are recycling their materials at the end of their life, and it will soon be the same for the concrete sector. It will soon be possible to produce recycled concrete with the same level of strength and durability as conventional concrete.
For more information about recycling concrete or concrete products, Danterr is here to answer all your questions. Please visit our website or give us a call on: 1800 262 383.
Most of us are, in some ways, in contact with concrete in our daily lives. Our houses and apartment buildings that we live in, or the roads that we have travelled on daily, or the skyscrapers that we see on the road side, there are many examples. But, we never really think about what constitutes concrete slabs, have we? Unless we are operating in the concrete business, we never realised that concrete is the second most consumed substance in the world behind water.
A concrete slab is widely used in construction as the foundation for: walls, bridges and footpaths. While unreinforced concrete has a long history since the Roman era where they built the Colosseum in 300 BC, when looking at modern construction, reinforced concrete slabs are mostly used to minimise cracks’ openings by keeping it reasonably tight until being repaired.
This is because concrete is very strong when it is squeezed in compression but very weak when it is being pulled apart in tension.
So, what are the different types of a concrete slab?
1. Steel reinforcing bars and welded wire reinforcement are popularly used by construction companies. The process of constructing a concrete slab starts with leveling the desired concrete slab with a board on the side. The thickness typically goes from 4 to 20 inches. Then, build the bed and mesh wires are stacked, like the UNO stack that we used to love to play, horizontally and vertically. Now you are ready to pour in the concrete and let it dry. Well, this may sound really easy but it actually requires a lot of work and time.
2. Other alternative is the fiber-reinforced concrete. While it is less expensive than the mesh wire, it still increases the strength many times. The steel fibre may be more ductile as compared to the glass and plastic fiber. Why use glass and plastic fiber then? Being environmentally-friendly is the current trend, while steel has the potential of corrosion, glass and plastic fiber is corrosion-proof and lighter. Those are definitely plus points for our environmentally-friendly friends in reducing harm to the surrounding environment.
The ‘green’ trend that is ongoing has also inspired Danterr to provide more environmentally friendly options to our customers. We have previously introduced the Micro synthetic fiber and HPP50 Macro synthetic fiber in conjunction with the artificial reef project that we helped work on with Subcon.
If you have a project coming up don’t hesitate to contact us on: 1800 262 383 and one of our friendly staff can assist you in choosing the right products to best suit your project needs. Alternatively, please email our sales team for any enquiries: email@example.com or visit our website: www.danterr.com
An essential tool for any major construction project would be spacers. These are the foundation of all building structures, as the spacers are essential for maintaining reinforcement in the most suitable position or ensuring the given distance between the walls before and during the construction process of concreting.
Cast concrete Aspro Spacers ensure that the specified concrete cover for structures is reinforced correctly and structural elements are maintained and achieved, both before and during concreting. Aspro Spacers are commonly used for the walls, columns and foundations.
Being a vital part of the basic building foundation during construction, strength should be an important aspect of spacers.
With its compressive strength tested, these spacers exceed 75mpa in their strength and durability. The Aspro Spacers including our Galvanised wire, have the strength needed to best suit any concreting project and can support the reinforcement and safety of each structure, which is our top priority.
Aspro Spacers have a great lifetime in health and is the best bond to stop concrete cancer. The unique rough sides that Aspro Spacers have, make it harder for moisture to penetrate the structure of the cement.
The flat, smooth base of an Aspro Spacer creates an unwavering stability. There is no need to worry about the block rolling or slipping away during construction because it has been shaped for firmness.
Concrete construction is all around us – it is omnipresent in almost every building we walk past on a daily basis. It’s so substantial in its availability and production that concrete has to be considered as an important factor when looking at global environmental problems. With concrete construction being such a common commodity around us, it’s important to ask ourselves – is this sort of construction sustainable?
Is it just as viable for the environment as it is a viable option for us?
All in all, the answer to that question is that concrete is definitely a friend for both us and the environment. In fact, concrete is a friend to the environment throughout all stages of its lifespan. Right from the very beginning when it is raw material to then be used in construction that can easily be demolished, it is a natural and safe choice. If you aren’t convinced, then here’s a few things for you to consider:
As you can see from the many concrete constructions that you would come across on a daily basis, concrete is very long lasting. It doesn’t rust, it doesn’t rot and it has a lifespan that is almost three times the lifespan of a building made out of other common construction materials. It saves financial resources and isn’t affected by any adverse environmental conditions thrown its way- and because it’s so long lasting it cuts down on demolition costs as well.
The major raw component of the cement that is found in concrete is Limestone. Limestone is one of the incredible abundances on earth, and is in no risk of running out any time soon. Whilst there is plenty of limestone to make cement, concrete can also be made by other materials such as byproducts from power plants and manufacturing facilities.
Property of Reflection
Concrete constructions- especially those that are lighter in colour- actually absorb very little heat. This is vital in the peak of summer, as this means it reflects the rest of the heat it doesn’t absorb, thus keeping the insides of our homes and buildings significantly cooler. This in turn cuts down on air conditioning and ventilation costs that would adversely affect the environment.
Concrete during production can be made upon demand instead of made in bulk and having possible excess at the end of the project. Furthermore concrete at the end of its lifespan during demolition can still be used and recycled to use for new concrete.
Water Retention Properties
Concrete has been invented to counteract the environmental harms that paved surfaces create during rainy seasons. Pervious concrete absorbs water and allows it to seep into the earth naturally whereas paved surfaces do not facilitate this absorption process. Without absorption, instances of pollution and flash flooding are more likely to occur.
Ultimately, concrete construction has been a commonality of the past and it is here to stay for the future as well. Its sustainability and benefits for the environment go further than what’s just mentioned above, it is very much leading us to a greener future.
Being the most consumed man-made material in the world, it’s no doubt that construction companies are not letting go of the concrete industry just yet. Concrete is really strong on its strength integrity, lasting almost indefinitely and Danterr does not want to leave out the concrete industry too.
Modern constructions have been relying on concrete’s durability and versatility for buildings, sidewalks, bridges on land or underwater as it has high fire and water resistance. As the world is still developing, we believe that construction companies still want to compete for more lucrative projects.
What does the industry look like at the moment?
The global growth of cement production has been positively increasing especially in China in the past few years. China is currently the number 1 cement producer in the world according to Statista, looking at a massive 2.4 billion tons of production in 2016.
Another fun fact: Washington Post also mentioned that China’s use of concrete in 2011 – 2013 is more than the United States concrete use in the whole 20th century. That really shows how massive the concrete industry truly is.
The concrete industry is looking at over six billion tons of production annually and construction companies are benefited greatly with this rise of concrete use within the industry, with revenue reaching US $47 billion.
Regardless of the slowing down retail construction growth, the concrete market is still on the rise. Construction spending in Australia within the first half of 2017 is also still increasing despite the declining public investment on the past year. Recent news has also shown rebound on Australia’s construction industry as the Performance of Construction Index (PCI) improved rapidly in the past three months reflecting increased activities across four major construction sectors.
How is it looking in the future?
The future of concrete is promising as the world’s demand for cement is projected to increase by 4.5 percent each year. Most projections are looking at around 5.2 percent growth annually until 2019 where the market for construction aggregates would grow to 51.7 billion tons.
In Australia, we are looking at the housing unaffordability trend as the prices of housing soar. This also calls for the aging Australian workforce as there will be more skill shortages in the future with construction companies.
Following up to our previous blog article on ‘green’ concrete, there are now possibilities of the concrete market to change and become more environmentally friendly. We are hopeful to see how the ‘green’ concrete industry will thrive in the future as the demand for concrete is still high and rising.
Danterr is continually looking for better solutions with concrete sustainability.
If you haven’t read our articles click here to keep up to date with all of Danterr’s projects. Alternatively, please come have a chat with us to enquire about our products and how we can help you with your next big project!
Did you know Concrete can have cancer too?
During construction, reinforcement of concrete is made by using bars of steel. However, as time goes by, this steel is exposed to water and air. By the nature of science, this results in corrosion. The steel expands and causes the concrete surrounding to crack and become brittle. The cracks allow greater ongoing exposure to moisture for the steel and accelerates this issue further.
Like any cancer, it has its symptoms. You don’t need a type of medicine or construction related degree to spot that something isn’t right. The indication of a cancer concern can be observed through:
- Concrete crumbling or flaking
- The appearance of rust stains
- Leaks emerging from concrete
- Concrete render Bubbling
Concrete Cancer is commonly caused by:
- Using poorly treated reinforcing steel that reacts easily
- Close proximity between the end of the reinforcing material and the surface where water can easily seep through
- Close proximity between incompatible metals that causes a reaction involving water to occur
- Fractures due to bearing weight or general wear-and-tear in concrete that allow water into the slab
- Environmental factors such as concrete being near the ocean (speeding up corrosion), the natural movement of earth underground and condensation of the water on concrete is due to the cold weather
Looking ugly would hardly be considered a crime. However, concrete cancer can have potential health hazards. The cracking of concrete weakens its strength and the risk of it falling is a danger to both properties and people.
Concrete cancer should be treated immediately, as the longer the problem persist, the more complex the treatment. The damaged concrete is required to be taken away, removing any loose material. A new steel would replace the rusted one and new concrete will then be poured until the new steel is securely reinforced. Waterproof membranes can then be coated onto the new concreted for extra protection.
But you know what they say, prevention is better than cure!
Instead of spending a massive amount of money, time, resources and effort curing concrete cancer, the more cost-efficient option would be to prevent the problem from happening in the first place.
Some prevention tips include:
- Waterproofing: Using effective waterproofing membranes can reduce water leakage in the long-term, regardless of the weather conditions.
- Suitable reinforcement material: Using a corrosion-resistant material for construction reinforcement, such as Aspros Spacers. These spacers are more suitable to maintain reinforcement in the suitable position or ensure given distance apart between walls before and during concreting as it has the best bond that prevents concrete cancer. This material’s unique rough sides produces an unrivalled bond rather than cold joints with placed cement that are formed from normal moulded product. This would decrease moisture penetrating the structure.
- Concrete painting: Using chloride resistance paint designed to lower the risk of corrosion through the exposure of salt water.
- Perform regular check-ups: Maintaining the concrete or buildings by sealing the concrete on a regular basis to protect against water damage and general wear and tear.